The general growth type of the plant.
An annual grows for a single season before dying. A biennial starts into growth in one season and flowers the next. Biennials are often early spring flowering plants. A perennial (or strictly, herbaceous perennial) lives year upon year, but generally dies back to ground level over winter.
A shrub has a permanent woody framework above ground, but if it has a single stem it is referred to as a tree. A bulb has a permanent food storage organ below ground level (this category includes all such plants including tubers and corms.
A succulent is a plant with some mechanism to enable it to store water. A cactus is a particular family of succulents.